Original Article

In Vivo Comparison of the Efficiency of En-Masse Retraction Using Temporary Anchorage Devices With and Without Orthodontic Appliances on the Posterior Teeth


  • Sanjam Oswal
  • Sonali V. Deshmukh
  • Sanket S. Agarkar
  • Sachin Durkar
  • Chaitra Mastud
  • Jayesh S. Rahalkar

Received Date: 10.12.2020 Accepted Date: 29.09.2021 Turk J Orthod 2022;35(2):112-119


To compare the effectiveness of en-masse retraction of maxillary anterior teeth using temporary anchorage devices with and without orthodontic appliances on the posterior teeth.


In the study, 20 participants (18.25 ± 4.07 years) meeting the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into 2 groups using the sequentially numbered opaque sealed envelopes method. In group I (control group, n = 10), en-masse retraction was carried out with conventional high hooks soldered to the retraction wire and posterior teeth were included. In group II (experimental group, n = 10), the en-masse retraction was carried out without an orthodontic appliance on posterior teeth and a modified retraction wire was incorporated. In both groups, mini-implants were placed bilaterally between the maxillary second premolar and maxillary first molar, and a retraction force of 6 ounces (180 g) was applied using power chains. Lateral cephalograms and study models were taken before retraction and 4 months after retraction. All statistical analyses were performed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software with a statistically significant level of 5%. We used unpaired t-tests for the comparison, and the error of the method was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients and the Bland–Altman method.


The maxillary incisor apex retraction, change in maxillary incisor in the vertical plane, and its inclination showed statistically significant differences (P < .05). The rate of retraction was significantly greater in the experimental group when evaluated clinically and in the study models (P < .05).


The rate/amount of retraction evaluated clinically and in the study models was significantly faster/greater when the posterior teeth were not included during anterior retraction. Also, a greater amount of bodily retraction of anterior teeth was achieved.

Keywords: En-masse retraction, mini-implants, without posterior dental anchorage